Types

TYPES OF BREAST CANCER

Various Types Of Breast Cancer & Their Treatment With Nutas









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Types of Breast Cancer

1. DCIS — Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
2. IDC — Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
3. IDC Type: Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast
4. IDC Type: Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast
5. IDC Type: Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast
6. IDC Type: Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast
7. IDC Type: Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast
8. ILC — Invasive Lobular Carcinoma
9. Inflammatory Breast Cancer
10. LCIS — Lobular Carcinoma In Situ
11. Male Breast Cancer
12. Paget’s Disease of the Nipple
13. Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast
14. Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer

1. DCIS – ductal carcinoma in situ

What DCIS is

If you have ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), it means that cells inside some of the ducts of your breast have started to turn into cancer cells. These cells are all contained inside the ducts and have not started to spread into the surrounding breast tissue. So, there is very little chance that any of the cells have spread to the lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body. Doctors use various terms to describe DCIS, including pre invasive, non invasive, or intra ductal cancer.

Your doctor may describe DCIS as a very early form of breast cancer. If it is not treated, in some women DCIS starts to spread into the surrounding breast tissue after some years. So it may become an invasive cancer. DCIS is being found more often than in the past. It is sometimes picked up by mammograms when women are screened for breast cancer. Nearly 4,650 women are diagnosed with DCIS in Great Britain each year.

DCIS and invasive ductal breast cancer are not the same thing. In invasive ductal breast cancer, the cells have broken out of the ducts and spread into the surrounding breast tissue. There is then a chance that the cells can spread into nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

Treatment for DCIS

Surgery is the main treatment for DCIS. Many women have removal of the area of DCIS, with a border of healthy tissue around it. This is called wide local excision or conservative surgery or sometimes lumpectomy. After wide local excision surgery, you may have radiotherapy to the rest of the breast tissue if the DCIS cells looked very abnormal (high grade). The radiotherapy treatment is to kill off any abnormal cells that may still be within the breast tissue. Your doctor will discuss with you the possible benefits and risks of radiotherapy.

Some women prefer to have the whole breast removed rather than wide local excision as it makes them feel more confident that the DCIS is cured.

Treatment and DCIS grade

Doctors classify DCIS into high grade (more quickly growing) and low grade (more slowly growing). There is also an intermediate grade, that is in between high grade and low grade. Doctors think that the high grade DCIS is more likely to spread into the surrounding breast tissue and more likely to come back after treatment. Knowing the grade helps doctors to know which treatment you need.

Follow up

Whichever treatment you have, you will have regular follow up appointments to make sure that if DCIS comes back in the treated breast it is picked up as quickly as possible. Your specialist will probably suggest yearly mammograms (breast X-rays). If your DCIS does come back, your specialist will probably suggest that you have a mastectomy.

2. IDC — Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer.

About 80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas.

Invasive means that the cancer has “invaded” or spread to the surrounding breast tissues. Ductal means that the cancer began in the milk ducts, which are the “pipes” that carry milk from the milk-producing lobules to the nipple. Carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues that cover internal organs — such as breast tissue. All together, “invasive ductal carcinoma” refers to cancer that has broken through the wall of the milk duct and begun to invade the tissues of the breast. Over time, invasive ductal carcinoma can spread to the lymph nodes and possibly to other areas of the body.

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 180,000 women in the United States find out they have invasive breast cancer each year. Most of them are diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma.

3. IDC Type: Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast

Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins inside the breast’s milk duct and spreads beyond it into healthy tissue). Tubular carcinomas are usually small (about 1 cm or less) and made up of tube-shaped structures called “tubules.” These tumors tend to be low-grade, meaning that their cells look somewhat similar to normal, healthy cells and tend to grow slowly.

At one time, tubular carcinomas accounted for about 1-4% of all breast cancers. Now that screening mammography is widely used, however, tubular carcinomas are being diagnosed more frequently — often before you or your doctor would be able to feel a lump. Exact numbers aren’t available, but studies suggest that tubular carcinomas may account for anywhere from just under 8% to 27% of all breast cancers.

Studies also suggest that the average age of diagnosis for tubular carcinoma is the early 50s, although women can be diagnosed with it at any age. This type of cancer is rare in men.

4. IDC Type: Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast

Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk duct and spreads beyond it), accounting for about 3-5% of all cases of breast cancer. It is called “medullary” carcinoma because the tumor is a soft, fleshy mass that resembles a part of the brain called the medulla.

Medullary carcinoma can occur at any age, but it usually affects women in their late 40s and early 50s. Medullary carcinoma is more common in women who have a BRCA1 mutation. Studies have shown that medullary carcinoma is also more common in Japan than in the United States.

Medullary carcinoma cells are usually high-grade in their appearance and low-grade in their behavior. In other words, they look like aggressive, highly abnormal cancer cells, but they don’t act like them. Medullary carcinoma doesn’t grow quickly and usually doesn’t spread outside the breast to the lymph nodes. For this reason, it’s typically easier to treat than other types of breast cancer.

5. IDC Type: Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast — sometimes called colloid carcinoma — is a rare form of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk duct and spreads beyond it into nearby healthy tissue). In this type of cancer, the tumor is made up of abnormal cells that “float” in pools of mucin, a key ingredient in the slimy, slippery substance known as mucus.

Normally, mucus lines most of the inner surface of our bodies, such as our digestive tract, lungs, liver, and other vital organs. Many types of cancer cells — including most breast cancer cells — produce some mucus. In mucinous carcinoma, however, mucin becomes part of the tumor and surrounds the breast cancer cells. Under a microscope, it looks like the cancer cells are scattered throughout pools of mucus.

Research suggests that only about 2-3% of invasive breast cancers are “pure” mucinous carcinomas — meaning that this is the only type of cancer present within the tumor. About 5% of invasive breast cancers appear to have a mucinous component within them, with other types of cancer cells present as well. Mucinous carcinoma is extremely rare in men.

Although mucinous carcinoma can be diagnosed at any age, it tends to affect women after they’ve gone through menopause. Some studies have found that the average age at diagnosis is in the 60s or early 70s.

6. IDC Type: Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast

Invasive papillary carcinomas of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1-2% of invasive breast cancers. In most cases, these types of tumors are diagnosed in older women who have already been through menopause. An invasive papillary carcinoma usually has a well-defined border and is made up of small, finger-like projections.

Often it is grade 2, or moderate grade, on a scale of 1 to 3 — with grade 1 describing cancer cells that look and behave somewhat like normal, healthy breast cells, and grade 3 describing very abnormal, fast-growing cancer cells. In most cases of invasive papillary carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is also present. (DCIS is a type of cancer in which the carcinoma cells are confined to the breast duct.)

7. IDC Type: Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast

In invasive cribriform carcinoma, the cancer cells invade the stroma (connective tissues of the breast) in nestlike formations between the ducts and lobules. Within the tumor, there are distinctive holes in between the cancer cells, making it look something like Swiss cheese. Invasive cribriform carcinoma is usually low grade, meaning that its cells look and behave somewhat like normal, healthy breast cells. In about 5-6% of invasive breast cancers, some portion of the tumor can be considered cribriform. Usually, some ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the cribriform type is present as well.

8. ILC — Invasive Lobular Carcinoma

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), sometimes called infiltrating lobular carcinoma, is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins in the milk-carrying ducts and spreads beyond it). According to the American Cancer Society, more than 180,000 women in the United States find out they have invasive breast cancer each year. About 10% of all invasive breast cancers are invasive lobular carcinomas. (About 80% are invasive ductal carcinomas.)

Invasive means that the cancer has “invaded” or spread to the surrounding breast tissues. Lobular means that the cancer began in the milk-producing lobules, which empty out into the ducts that carry milk to the nipple. Carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues that cover internal organs — such as breast tissue. All together, “invasive lobular carcinoma” refers to cancer that has broken through the wall of the lobule and begun to invade the tissues of the breast. Over time, invasive lobular carcinoma can spread to the lymph nodes and possibly to other areas of the body.

9. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, about 1-5% of all breast cancer cases in the United States are inflammatory breast cancers.

Inflammatory breast cancer usually starts with the reddening and swelling of the breast instead of a distinct lump. IBC tends to grow and spread quickly, with symptoms worsening within days or even hours. It’s important to recognize symptoms and seek prompt treatment. Although inflammatory breast cancer is a serious diagnosis, keep in mind that treatments today are better at controlling the disease than they used to be.

The average age at diagnosis for inflammatory breast cancer in the United States is 57 for white women and 52 for African American women. These ages are about 5 years younger than the average ages at diagnosis for other forms of breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, inflammatory breast cancer is more common in African American women. A 2008 study found that being overweight makes a person more likely to develop IBC. Like other forms of breast cancer, IBC can also affect men.

10. LCIS – lobular carcinoma in situ

What lobular carcinoma in situ is
If you have lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), it means that cells inside some of your breast lobules have started to become abnormal. It is not a cancer. Doctors refer to it as lobular neoplasia. The cells are all contained within the inner lining of the breast lobules. It is often present in both breasts.

LCIS does not show up on breast X-rays (mammograms) and usually does not cause symptoms. It is often diagnosed by chance when you have a breast biopsy for something else. Or it may be found when you have a breast lump removed and the cells are examined in the laboratory. LCIS is more common in women who have not had their menopause. About 525 women are diagnosed with LCIS each year in Great Britain.

Please note that there is a type of breast cancer called invasive lobular breast cancer, and this is different to LCIS.

Treatment for LCIS
Most women with LCIS will not get breast cancer. So you usually don’t need to have any treatment. But as there is an increased risk of breast cancer your doctor is likely to suggest keeping a close eye on you with

1. A breast examination every 6 to 12 months
2. A breast X-ray (mammogram) every 1 to 2 years

Your doctor may suggest that you take a type of hormone therapy to lower the chance of breast cancer if you have LCIS.

11. Male Breast Cancer

Breast cancer in men is a rare disease. Less than 1% of all breast cancers occur in men. In 2013, about 2,240 men were diagnosed with the disease. For men, the lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000.

You may be thinking: Men don’t have breasts, so how can they get breast cancer? The truth is that boys and girls, men and women all have breast tissue. The various hormones in girls’ and women’s bodies stimulate the breast tissue to grow into full breasts. Boys’ and men’s bodies normally don’t make much of the breast-stimulating hormones. As a result, their breast tissue usually stays flat and small. Still, you may have seen boys and men with medium-sized or big breasts. Usually these breasts are just mounds of fat. But sometimes men can develop real breast gland tissue because they take certain medicines or have abnormal hormone levels.

12. Paget’s Disease of the Nipple

Paget’s disease of the nipple is a rare form of breast cancer in which cancer cells collect in or around the nipple. The cancer usually affects the ducts of the nipple first (small milk-carrying tubes), then spreads to the nipple surface and the areola (the dark circle of skin around the nipple). The nipple and areola often become scaly, red, itchy, and irritated.

According to the National Cancer Institute, Paget’s disease of the nipple accounts for less than 5% of all breast cancer cases in the United States. Being aware of the symptoms is important, given that more than 97% of people with Paget’s disease also have cancer, either DCIS or invasive cancer, somewhere else in the breast. The unusual changes in the nipple and areola are often the first indication that breast cancer is present.

Doctors are not yet completely sure how Paget’s disease develops. One possibility is that the cancer cells start growing inside the milk ducts within the breast and then make their way out to the nipple surface. This would appear to explain why so many people with Paget’s disease of the nipple have a second area of cancer within the breast. Another theory is that the cells of the nipple itself become cancerous. This theory would explain the small number of people who: (1) only have Paget’s disease in the nipple, or (2) have a second breast cancer that appears to be completely separate from the Paget’s disease.

13. Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast

Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. The name “phyllodes,” which is taken from the Greek language and means “leaflike,” refers to that fact that the tumor cells grow in a leaflike pattern. Other names for these tumors are phylloides tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes. Phyllodes tumors tend to grow quickly, but they rarely spread outside the breast.

Although most phyllodes tumors are benign (not cancerous), some are malignant (cancerous) and some are borderline (in between noncancerous and cancerous). All three kinds of phyllodes tumors tend to grow quickly, and they require surgery to reduce the risk of a phyllodes tumor coming back in the breast (local recurrence).

Phyllodes tumors can occur at any age, but they tend to develop when a woman is in her 40s. Benign phyllodes tumors are usually diagnosed at a younger age than malignant phyllodes tumors. Phyllodes tumors are extremely rare in men.

14. Recurrent and Metastatic Breast Cancer

We know you really don’t want to be here, reading about breast cancer recurrence or metastasis. If you’ve had breast cancer, the possibility of recurrence and spread (metastasis) of breast cancer stays with you. You may be here because you fear this possibility. Or you may be here because it’s already happened.

Keep in mind that a recurrence of breast cancer or metastatic (advanced) disease is NOT hopeless. Many women continue to live long, productive lives with breast cancer in this stage. It is also likely that your experience with treatment this time will be somewhat different from last time. There are so many options for your care and so many ways to chart your progress as you move through diagnosis, treatment, and beyond.


About Breast Cancer

TYPES OF BREAST CANCER


http://nutas.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/cancer.jpg

If you have ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), it means that cells inside some of the ducts of your breast have started to turn into cancer cells. Read More


DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU


http://nutas.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/cancer-2.jpg

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer.  Read More


INVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA


http://nutas.in/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/cancer.jpg

Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (cancer that begins inside the breast’s milk duct and spreads beyond it into healthy tissue). Read More


TUBULAR CARCINOMA OF THE BREAST


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Focused ultrasound therapy uses ultrasound waves to guide the application of focused, high-intensity ultrasound waves through the skin down to the target tissue.

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